写作优秀公关文案必须具备的四大思维

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这是一个信息爆炸的时代,这也是一个信息微缩的时代。这是一个注意力无比涣散的时代,这也是一个注意力无比稀缺的时代。每天都会有无数的信息疯狂地涌入我们的世界,有无数的商家在急迫地抢夺我们的注意力。

我们的时间、信息、还有注意力仿佛都被互联网时代切割成了细小的碎片。

在信息爆炸的时代,文案所做的最重要的一件事就是抢夺用户的注意力,公关文案也不例外,但与广告文案不同,公关稿的更为潜移默化,润物无声。如果说广告文案是浓烈的威士忌,那么公关文案就是抚慰人心的清茶。那么好的公关文案有什么样的特点呢?公关文案又该如何写呢?想要写作一篇优秀的公关文案,需要具备四大思维。

写作公关文案需具备的四大思维

1.受众思维——精准地场景置换

在写作公关文案之前,首先要明白,我们的用户是谁?他们有什么样的需求?他们的情感诉求又是什么?要准确地了解受众的需求,首先要明白我们的受众是谁,也就是进行准确的受众定位。

定位之父特劳特一直在强调品牌花了超过二十年写作了定位理论四步大法,而这也适用于公关文案的定位。

定位工作四步法具体如下:

第一步:整合外部环境,确定竞争对手。竞争对手是谁?竞争对手的优势和劣势是什么?我们相较于竞争对手而言有什么优势和劣势?如何扩大优势避免劣势是我们必须要回答的问题。

第二步:避开竞争对手已经确立的优势,确立自己的优势。“知己知彼,百战不殆”,想在品牌运营中取得成功,建立对自己和对其他品牌的深入了解十分重要。关键点就在于避开竞争对手的风头,在其劣势区域或者是空白区域寻找自己的优势。

第三步:进一步确认自己的优势。确认自己的优势不是仅仅靠喊两句口号就能完成的,需要对自己存在的优势提出有效的证据使得消费者信服。

第四步:将定位整合进企业运营。最后,企业需要将定位策略成功地整合进企业运营的方方面面,包括内部运营和外部运营。

在准确地定位用户之后,公关文案应该准确地狙击用户需求,分析用户的心理诉求。而这里有一个简单的方法,就是和用户进行场景置换。

设想一下,如果你是用户,如果你在用户的生活场景,你会有怎样的情感诉求。

举个例子,瑞幸咖啡初入市场时就考虑到了办公室白领喝咖啡的需求,设想了白领们喝咖啡的场景。中国咖啡市场的痛点是什么?瑞幸咖啡运营团队认为“价格高”和“购买不方便”是咖啡市场的两大痛点。针对这两大问题,瑞幸咖啡分别采取了降低咖啡成本和“自提+外卖”运营两大策略。

同时,瑞幸也设身处地地设想了用户们对于喝咖啡的心理需求。对于白领而言,更希望早上点了一杯咖啡之后,到公司门口就能自提咖啡,然后享受着在写字楼上边喝咖啡边工作的早上。因此,“精致”和“小资”成了瑞幸咖啡的公关方向,在后续的公关稿件写作中,瑞幸咖啡也在不断地强化这一印象,并且请了符合这一形象的品牌代言人。

2.逻辑思维——把握PAST原则

公关文案的目的是向公众传递信息,表达情绪,因此公关文案比别的文案更需要逻辑性。很多公关稿让人没有阅读欲望的主要原因就在于,文章冗长、态度不鲜明、逻辑混乱。

公关文案的句子必须衔接紧密,一环扣一环,像连接起来的铁链一样让人找不到缺口。优秀的公关文案不仅需要符合一般文章写作的“5W”原则,更要符合新闻写作的PAST原则。

什么是PAST原则?在《新闻写作的艺术中》,纳韦德·萨利赫提出了文案写作所具备的四个原则,即宗旨、受众、范围和主题。

宗旨:文章写作的目的是什么,需要达成怎样的效果?

受众:文章的受众是谁,他们想看到什么?

范围:文章写作的范围有多大?

主题:文章的主题是什么?主题表达是否鲜明?

在这里,我们以王源吸烟事件后的道歉文案为样本,王源吸烟事件曾经掀起轩然大波,却在道歉之后取得了群众的谅解。与之相反的是,翟天临在论文抄袭事件之后的道歉却遭到了大众的反弹和舆论的围攻。为什么王源的道歉公关文案可以让此次事件化险为夷?

以下是王源吸烟后的道歉文案:

“对不起!这件事让我深刻反思了自己的行为,对自己造成的不良社会影响,我感到十分抱歉和愧疚,很抱歉我做了一个错误的示范,我会承担相应的责任并接受处罚。作为一名公众人物,我今后一定会更加注重自身的言行,希望大家不要效仿我的错误行为。再次向大家道歉,我一定会以此为鉴,成为更好的大人。 ”

首先,这篇文案明确了主题——道歉,并准确地表明了道歉之后自己的态度和承担后果的决心。最重要的一点是,王源在这篇文案中精准把控了受众的心。其实吃瓜群众和无关路人并不会对王源吸烟事件有什么太大的恶感,真正受到触动、感到愤怒的是“粉”了王源许多年的粉丝。

在他们心目中,王源“少年”、“孩子气”的人设是圈粉的一大重点,也是他们对于王源本人的形象定位。所以粉丝在看到王源如此社会的举动才会接受不了,“愤而脱粉”。于是,本篇公关稿件中最大的亮点就是“我一定会以此为鉴,成为更好的大人”。

通过这样的表达,可以将王源吸烟事件淡化成王源在成长的过程中不小心犯的一点小错误。因此,王源“少年”的人设得以维持,“妈妈粉”、“姐姐粉”也大多对此抱有谅解的心态。因此此次事件安然度过。

可想而知,写一篇有逻辑,符合“PAST”原则的公关稿件有多么重要,很多时候甚至能让一些危机事件化险为夷。

3.提炼思维

为什么公关文案让人看不下去,其中有两个原因,一个是逻辑不够清晰,另一个则是行文过于冗杂。因此公关文案写作应该具备提炼思维,在写作的时候要将文章的主旨和逻辑提取出来,在写完之后则要对文章多加检查,去掉不必要的表达和冗杂的文字。

在写作公关文案之前,应该提炼出全文的逻辑,绘制文章的思维导图,用树状结构表达文章的逻辑。在这里,文案逻辑写作可以遵循“总分总”结构和“是什么、为什么、怎么办”三步打法。

是什么:我们要写作的主题是什么,文案中涉及的新定义新内容的释义要阐述清楚。

为什么:我们为什么要写这篇公关文,这篇公关稿件是写给谁看的。

怎么办:我们会如此解决这样的事件,事件之后会带来怎样的结果

先将逻辑提炼出来,可以避免文案让读者找不到重点,不知道怎么阅读下去的缺陷。

在文案中,另一个需要提炼的则是文章的语言,避免过多废话和过于冗杂的表达,尽量裁剪到不必要的信息,保留核心主旨,这样可以不仅仅可以让读者更好地抓住重点,也能增强文章的艺术性表达。

4.共情思维

所谓共情,就是指在文案写作中达到情感的共通。只要能和用户达到情感的共通,就能更好地让公众成为我们的战友,站到我们这边来,替我们说话。

互联网时代的一大特点就是流量的分散和下沉。自媒体的发展和网络的进步使得社会话语权不断地稀释,并逐渐下沉到边缘人群的受众。每个人都可以成为一个独立的信息流,微小的信息流汇聚在一起也能形成巨大的力量。“视觉中国”危机事件其实和大多数的我们并没有直接关系,但是事件的发酵激发了人们的共鸣,引发了群众的议论。

在这样的议论之中,信息流不断汇聚在一起,传播也就形成了,信息流的量不断剧增,形成可以和大媒体对抗的力量。边缘人群的理解格外的重要,巧妙利用人群的力量可以为企业公关带来更多的同盟军,形成“农村包围城市”的良好效果。

因此,发动群众的共情至关重要,只要群众愿意参与进来,无疑公关事件会呈现出病毒式的裂变。那么公关文案要如何如何让用户产生共鸣。

1. 把握用户的痛点和需求点

如“会弹钢琴的孩子不会变坏”

2. 聚集垂直人群

如:天猫“玩物立志”

3. 把握热点

知乎:“填志愿,上知乎”

结语:

如果说广告文案卖的是牛排,那么公关文案卖的就是牛排的“滋滋声”,是一种对用户心智的悄然入侵。为什么人们对于公关的感知度低,对于公关的印象不如广告深刻,原因就在于公关具备广告不具备的“潜移默化、润物无声”的特点。

当你们受众知道你在公关的时候,你就失败了。优秀的公关文案怎么写,把握受众思维、逻辑思维、提炼思维、共情思维四个思维即可。


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