拉新促活中的心理学:唤醒老用户的三种思维方式

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如果你是一名从业时间有一定年限的运营,那么你可能会发现一个现象——获客成本越来越高了。从2012年至今,互联网急速发展的时期已经逐渐过去,战场上厮杀已经接近尾声,流量入口被头部企业瓜分完毕,这意味着新用户越来越难以获取了。

产品同质化严重,变现困难,市场要求也越来越高。用户不再仅仅因为一点小优惠就使用新的APP,打开频率也逐渐降低;而无论是广告主还是投资方,也不会仅仅看用户量,而是紧盯活跃、留存、ROI。

既然获客成本逐渐走高,那么不如把目光放到已经处于沉睡状态的老用户身上。对于工具类、社交类、运动类、阅读类、电商类等应用,用户几周甚至一两个月才登录一次,其实这里面是有很大提升空间的。而这些用户,就是我们目标中处于“沉睡状态”的“老用户”。

相较于新用户,沉睡用户的优势在于:

  1. 付出的教育成本非常少,或基本为0;

  2. 唤醒成本要远比拉新成本低得多;

  3. 通过合适的方法触发老用户再次活跃,效果远远好于拉一个新用户。

很多公司都意识到了唤醒用户的必要性——实际上这也早已是用户精细化运营的一部分了。但应该如何唤醒呢?

唤醒老用户的第一种尝试

方法大多数都是以短信或者PUSH发送登录抽奖、双倍积分、代金券、补贴等为主,例如:

  • “恭喜您,当前金币可兑换满2000减200元券……”

  • “会员享特权,积分赚翻天,本周X会员日……”

  • “X周年庆,全场低至五折……”

  • “您的钱包入账一张88折优惠券……”

  • “亲爱的用户,您已成功入账1000元白银……”

通常情况下这样都不会起到什么作用,那么有什么解决办法?

  • 经费如果允许,换个更大的奖品;

  • 同样成本下,针对不同人群喜好,换个更有吸引力的诱饵;

  • 改为抽奖活动,利用锚定心理唤醒用户;

  • 与其他公司合作,置换更多礼品。

但无论如何,以上方法均可一言蔽之——“物质激励”,不过,如果继续“让利”下去,可能老用户依然是处于沉睡状态,对“巨大物质诱惑”无动于衷。实际上我们自己就已经被此类短信轰炸得烦不胜烦了。

有没有其他思路能解决这个问题呢?

要让沉睡老用户活跃起来,得知道他们的想法。所以用户唤醒这事儿,这次让我们从心理学的角度来分析一二。

为什么第一种尝试不管用?

在心理学中,人类有一种叫做“心理免疫系统”的机制,即当我们受到了强大的压力或者痛苦的时候,心理免疫系统会急速运转,令我们比预期更容易适应伤病、失恋、下岗等痛苦和压力。

相对而言——我们对于不断出现的“美好的事情”也更加容易接受。

这也是为什么“物质激励”对于老用户唤醒越来越难的原因,随着刺激频率的提升,用户感到疲劳,大脑收到的愉悦奖励也急剧下降。

怎么办?

三种思路奉上,希望能对你有所启发。

人人都有的自我印象表露欲

“自我印象表露”在心理学中指的是个体与他人交往时,总是会自愿地在他人面前真实地展示自己的行为、倾诉自己的思想。

把这种心理应用在实际产品中,其实会发现用户对于“自我印象表露”潜在需求非常广泛,如:

  • 拥有美颜功能——表露自己外表的欲望

  • 拥有分享功能——表露自己有趣的欲望

  • 拥有课程打卡功能——表露自己求知的欲望

除此之外,用户还会有哪些“自我印象”需要表露呢?

通常来说,正面形象都可以算在内——幽默,才华,品味,进取心,聪明,坚持,社会贡献等都可算在内。

我们可以利用“自我印象表露”的思路,重新考虑如何唤醒老用户:

  1. 产品中是否有哪些特点能与用户的正面“自我印象”有关?

  2. 这些特点如何才能表露出来,并利用其吸引用户?

  3. 如何才能转化成可执行的方案?

“直男测试题” —— 一个简单的自我印象表露唤醒案例

如上图案例所示,如果你是一个美妆或购物APP的运营,与其不厌其烦推送“特价优惠”,是不是推送一个更加有趣的“直男测试题”活动更加合适呢?

社会统一性——抓住用户的内群体偏好

在社会心理学中,内群体是指一个人经常参与的或在其间生活、或在其间工作、或在其间进行其他活动的群体。在群体中的成员会感到自己与群体的关系十分密切,并对群体有强烈的归属感。

简单来说,每个用户都属于不同的群体,而对于相同群体内的人,他们会更加有安全感与荣誉感,会更轻易信任并回归群体

在实际运营中,这种案例也是大量存在的,例如:

  • 游戏产品中的各类社团——其他社团的排名超过了你所在的社团,你会不会想马上回来拼一把?

  • 社区活动中的门槛设置——社群中要进行一次仅限程序员参加的线下分享会,身为程序员的你,会不会想来参加?

  • 旅游APP中的信息生产——有人就某景区的游玩问题向你请教,住在周边的你会不会想说上几句?

某求职应用推送的专题,对应用户唤醒的“应届生”群体属性

同样的,这里也有一套相应的思路供你重新思考:

  1. 你的用户属于哪个群体?他们有什么群体属性?

  2. 这个属性,能否与产品的某个功能结合?

  3. 结合的方法是否能够形成落地方案?

唤醒沉睡用户的同理心

在社会心理学中发现,人类有一种心理叫做“利他行为”,主要指个体会做一些对别人有好处,而对自己没有任何明显益处的自觉自愿行为。

无论是因为炫耀还是不忍,帮助他人是人类的天性与本能,而内疚、紧急事件、与自己相似等情况,更能够轻易唤醒用户的“同理心”。

比如之前刷屏的H5“小朋友的画廊”——

提供思路如下:

  1. 是否有合适的公益策略可以与产品结合?

  2. 这种公益策略是否违背公德?是否会有过于“利用人性”的情况出现?

  3. 如何将这种策略成功落地?方案是什么?

总结

从心理学的角度来分析沉睡用户,只是了解用户另辟蹊径的一个简单思路,任何运营手段和策略都是要基于对用户和产品的深度了解和思考,否则就会前功尽弃。

或许你已经看过太多关于唤醒用户的策略、文案、图片、渠道分析,但这一次,我们什么执行层面的内容都没讲,只谈思路。而开拓了思路,一定会有更多的方法随之而来。

 


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