4个问题简单聊聊SaaS模式会是一门好生意不

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今天聊聊对SaaS的一点看法,试图对下面几个问题进行思考:

  1. 什么是SaaS?

  2. SaaS模式如何赚钱?

  3. 好的SaaS产品有哪些?

  4. 在中国做SaaS是一门好生意吗?

一、什么是Saas?

Saas 的英文全称为Software-as-a-Service,软件即服务。使用软件就像使用某种服务那样方便,而不用像传统PC软件那样,先安装部署在电脑上才能使用。

现如今,用手机App、web浏览器,pad等等各种访问终端,无需安装软件,只要有网络就可以使用软件的功能。广义上讲,所有通过网络就可以使用的服务、应用、软件都属于Saas的范畴,比如美团、微信、天猫、支付宝、今日头条、抖音、百度浏览器、UC浏览器等等。

但我们今天要聊的不是广义上的SaaS,而是企业服务行业里的SaaS。企业服务里的SaaS是指企业客户只要有网络,就可以获取、享用到软件的功能和服务,通过web浏览器、app等互联网访问终端即可获取到SaaS厂商提供的服务。

在这个行业里的人说起SaaS,不得不提Salseforce这家公司。我们先大概了解下这家公司:

1999年前,互联网泡沫前夕,这家公司在美国旧金山成立了;2001年,向市场推出全球第一款SaaS应用CRM;2004年,纽交所上市2007年,推出PaaS平台;2009年,成为全球第一家年收入达10亿美金的云计算公司。

这一年,是2008年全球金融危机最严重的一年;这一年,马云的阿里云刚成立;这一年,腾讯云还在研发中,没有正式对外提供云服务;这一年,成立了21年的用友软件营收23亿人民币(截止今天用友市值91亿美金,Salseforce市值1231亿美金)。

2011年至今,CRM/AI/数据/营销云/客服云搭建完整生态;2017年,推出Einstein爱因斯坦,AI型CRM;2018年,营收超过100亿美金。

看完这个发展历程,中国的投资人和互联网行业从业者,不免生起羡慕之情,心头会想:中国啥时候可以出一家这样的公司?

再多说一句,其实国外做得好的SaaS公司还有很多,SAP、Oracle、Adobe(PS软件就是这个公司生产的),市值都是1000亿美金+。当然他们现在这个体量,公司业务不全是SaaS,还有其他的。而100亿美金+的企业服务型公司有100多家。

看到这里,估计更有人会说:哇塞,中国大有机会,这个行业大有前途,投身、投钱搞这个行业吧;结果不少企业反馈的是钱没了,时间精力也投了,就是营收做不起来、于是乎不能照搬欧美的,要走一条中国特色的企业服务之路,中国特色的SaaS之路。

好了,什么是SaaS,我们暂时介绍到这里,简单来说就是通过互联网就可以访问应用服务商提供的软件服务。

二、SaaS模式如何赚钱?

事先声明下,我们今天聊的不是企业服务型公司如何赚钱,因为企业服务有IaaS、PaaS、SaaS,种类繁多。

那么,如果你开一个公司,做SaaS产品,到底如何赚钱呢?

我们先摆出这个小学生都知道的万能公式:

销售额=卖出去商品价格 * 卖出去商品数量

应用在SaaS产品,就是

销售额 = 客单价 * 客户数量

这个公式很朴素、很朴实、很简单,一个菜市场卖菜的阿姨每天和这个公式打交道,但比较令人诧异的是很多创业公司不明白这个公式;有的是明白了,但具体去落实产品、市场、销售的时候,南辕北辙,越搞越离谱。

SaaS行业里比较普遍的收费方式不是一锤子买卖,比如一套软件10万元,包终身;而是订阅式收费,比如先买1年收费2万,明年如果觉得产品还不错,继续续费。按需付费,觉得没价值了,就不付费。表面上看,人家卖10万1年,你卖2万1年,好傻。

但其实放长线去看,从获客成本、收入增长来看,后者更显一筹。举例:

SaaS的真正魅力和威力在于:续费率。

假如公司每年新增客户量同比不增长的q情况下,5年时间,公司营收从1000万增长到3066万,翻了3倍左右。而如果没有续费率,新增客户同比也不增长,每年就新增比如100个客户,公司的营收5年后和5年前一样,这种赚钱模式显然要脆弱得多。

所以SaaS的赚钱公式可以进化为:

年度销售额=本年度新增客户数*客单价+截止上年度累计客户总数*续费率*客单价。

如果寄大希望于做新增客户,就需要花成本去获客,客服,销售,市场加起来获客成本并不低。

而如果通过打磨产品和服务,理解并挖掘客户需求,真正帮客户解决问题,让他们续费的成本远远低于去做新客户的成本。从这个角度看,真正牛逼的SaaS公司大多有真正能帮客户创造价值的产品和服务。

因为客户可能会续费,所以,如何让客户接下来的几年续费,是摆在SaaS型公司面前的一道必须面对的题目。方法,方式,各个行业的做法不一样,有的通过打磨产品,有的通过服务,有的深入业务,理解客户需求,有的在公司组织架构上通过设置”客户成功经理”。不管何种方式,最重要的是要真正解决企业的问题,而企业的问题无非就是“增收”、“降本”,功利性很强。

总结一下,SaaS公司的赚钱模式,真正的钥匙是在于续费率

同时,从利润=收入-成本的角度看,在获取客户,服务客户的过程中,获客成本不能太高,不然也不是一门好生意。至于先免费后收费,先圈流量再变现的C端思维,更属于一种扯淡的行为,根本走不通(免费试用另当别论)。

三、好的SaaS产品有哪些?

什么是好的SaaS产品?

有下面几个维度可以参考:

  1. 续费率比较高,比如大于80%

  2. 客户终身价值LTV VS 获客成本CAC,需要找到一个能让公司现金流稳步增长的比例。比如有些行里里的LTV>3CAC,具体多少倍,每个公司切的行业、产品价格、获客成本不一样。

  3. 目标客户定位清晰,到底是搞大客户还是中型客户,还是小微企业,一定要非常清晰,至少是阶段性战略定位要清晰。同时呢,产品研发、市场销售也要能灵活地支撑目标客户定位。

  4. 产品在标准化服务提供能力、个性化定制开发能力这2个方面一定要有一个专长。

  5. 产品操作路径高效,功利性强,在帮企业提效降本,创收方面一定要有亮点和吸引点。

  6. 能形成并不断拓宽护城河,比如产品的灵活性、可扩展性,对业务的理解力、适应力,市场销售的可切入性。

那么,到底哪些有哪些好的SaaS产品?

比如Salseforce、Slack、zoom、Adobe、Zendesk、HubSpot等等。国内暂时还不好评说,因为好的产品靠营收说话,这是很现实的参考维度。而国内SaaS产品的营收并没有很突出的,当然大环境也有关系(付费意愿,习惯,企业管理水平等等)。

四、在中国做SaaS是一门好生意吗?

我个人的判断是现在不是一门好生意,但将来大概率上是一门好生意。

1. 为什么现在不是?

(1)中国企业对云服务应用的认识,使用,付费意愿,整体上还处于初步发展阶段,远不到爆发,普遍使用的阶段。

(2)国内企业对数据安全性、保密性存在担忧.

(3)企业平均寿命短,导致很多小微企业、部分中型企业,在续费率这个因子上会大打折扣,导致SaaS厂商的营收很难看。

(4)SaaS厂商自身的产品、市场、销售专业化能力有待提高。

(5)中国是个人情社会,把SaaS应用卖给企业,大部分需要涉及到企业的多方相关利益者,这里面的关系有的很复杂,不是你的产品服务牛逼就能让对方下决策付费买,并落地实施的。这就导致销售周期变长,获客成本高。

2. 为什么将来会是?

(1)云计算,云服务是大势所趋和历史潮流,不以人的意志为转移。在中国互联网红利发展高峰已过的情况下以及人口压力、老龄化的趋势下,企业的用人成本趋高,势必会想办法利用科技来解决这些关乎企业生死存亡的问题,会想办法接入一些企业精细化管理运营的应用。

(2)随着BAT/TMD/资本等的关注、投入以及新增长点的挖掘和探索,一方面是投身这方面的人才、时间、金钱会越来越多,企业用户所接受的各种市场教育、熏陶也会越来越多,企业对SaaS应用的认知水平也会越来越深刻。势必会让这个市场的需求端-企业的需求产生新的增量,同时供给端也会通过人才、资本、技术产生更多更专业化,更重度垂直的应用。不管是通用型的,还是垂直功能型的还是行业应用型的。

(3)中国每一波的大势藏在国家政策里,随着国家的云计算战略、人工智能等国家战略的推动,势必会从顶层推动这个行业往前发展。


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