用户运营:如何根据用户需求构建用户画像模型

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现阶段的运营人员,不管是偏向哪种岗位,都要求你更懂用户。如何理解用户需求,这就需要建立用户模型。建立用户模型包括建立用户画像、进行用户分层、以及用户行为分析三方面的内容。

建立用户画像作为运营工作中重要的一部分,那么什么是用户画像?用户画像有什么作用?如何构建用户画像模型?

一、什么是用户画像?

所谓的用户画像,简单来说就是根据用户社会属性、生活习惯和消费行为等信息而抽象出的一个标签化的用户模型。也就是将用户信息标签化。

比如说,韩梅梅,30岁,女,已婚,2岁孩子妈妈,一线城市,高管
“30岁”、“2岁孩子妈妈”、“一线城市”,这些都是贴在韩梅梅这个人身上的标签。

二、用户标签的作用?

收集这些用户标签有什么用呢?我们可以根据这些标签了解用户偏好,挖掘用户需求,精准营销,进行个性推荐,提高广告投放的转换率。

对于运营来说,用户画像建立,可以极大的提高运营效率,帮助精细化运营。

三、不同生命周期的产品该如何构建用户画像?

用户画像对于不同生命周期的产品作用并不相同,如:初创期的产品因其用户量不足,用户画像对它只是一个泛概念,往往不是太有构建用户画像的意识。构建用户画像也只是为了更精确的了解目标用户。

所以,不同生命周期的产品其方法渠道是不同的。

不管哪个阶段的产品,构建用户画像,我们可以从收集用户信息数据开始。

1、用户信息标签

用户信息的收集包括用户基础要素、用户场景、行为偏好、心理个性、交际等多方面。可以用静态标签、动态标签两大类来划分。

值得注意的是,用户信息数据包含的范围非常广,特别是动态标签数据具有多变性,所以建立用户画像模型也是一个不断完善的过程。

用户信息标签

以上是列举的用户信息数据的部分标签。

静态信息标签是构成用户画像的基本框架。在运营工作中,我们可以参考成熟企业的静态信息模型,可以最快的帮助我们完善画像维度。

但在运营工作,动态信息往往能给我们更为有用的关键信息。

所谓的动态信息标签其实指的就是用户的网络行为。包括搜索、浏览、注册、登陆、签到、发布信息、收藏、评论、点赞、分享、加入购物车、购买、使用优惠券、使用积分……等一系列的行为。

用户行为取决于网站的属性,比如电商网站,能收集到更多用户的消费属性。而社交网站,则更容易收集到用户的社交属性。

除了用户行为之外,还包括用户行为的频次、用户行为时长、时段、设备等动态信息。

通过统计真实的用户行为,给用户打上不同的行为标签,然后建立模型标签。比如人口属性、用户活跃度、用户兴趣爱好、用户满意度、渠道偏好使用、购买偏好、内容偏好、用户关联、用户风险评分等。

通过模型标签,进一步建立预测标签,如:人群属性、消费能力、流失概率、违约概率、近期需求、潜在需求。

以微信公众号为例:
静态数据包括:用户的性别、年龄、职业、工作城市、毕业学校等。
动态数据包括:关注公众号、在某个时间阅读了某篇文章、给一篇文章点赞、给一篇文章留言、分享一篇文章、使用的设备终端、取消关注等。
更深层次的动态数据还有:在一篇文章停留了多久、阅读完成率是多少等等。

除了研究用户的事实数据,研究用户的心理现象,特别是需求、动机、价值观三大方面,可以窥探用户注册、使用、购买产品的深层动机;了解用户对产品的功能、服务需求是什么;认清目标用户带有怎样的价值观标签,是一类什么样的群体。不过这是一个较为复杂的研究方向。

2、不同生命周期的产品,如何采集用户信息数据

(1)初创期产品:这个时期用户画像,更多的是对静态标签的收集,确定目标用户,优化完善产品功能、设计、内容等。了解目标用户属性,进行流量建设。

这个阶段的产品自身的用户信息数据较少,可以通过调查竞争对手和直接的用户问卷调查,来对用户信息进行泛调查。

(2)成长期产品:这个阶段的用户画像意义在于精准营销,使产品的服务对象更加聚焦,更加的专注,能更好地满足用户的需求,优化运营手段,并提升公司的经营效益。

这个阶段的产品已经被市场认可,各项数据处于一个上升期。可以直接对产品后台所反馈的数据进行整理,建立一个更为详细的用户画像。

(3)成熟期产品:这个阶段的产品,市场地位基本稳定了,日常工作也大多以维护为主。就需要通过用户画像,寻找新的增长点和突破口。

这个阶段的用户画像,可以将初创期的泛调查与成长期累积的用户画像结合起来做。

总结:以上是关于构建用户画像的维度和渠道一些建议。值得注意的是,用户信息包含的范围非常广,特别是动态标签数据具有多变性,所以建立用户画像模型也是一个不断完善的过程。

 


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