三只松鼠章燎原:产品是在营销驱动下做出来

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如今,三只松鼠章燎原不再介意外界给他贴上「会做营销」的标签。他甚至主动把自己定位成「营销专家」,尽管这个词让人有烂大街的厌烦感。在他看来,在三只松鼠的操作系统里,产品是在营销驱动下做出来的。

创业 7 年,章燎原赶上了两个大时代:从传统零售到电商时代的红利期,再到红利消失、大牌醒悟的新零售时代。和许多曾经名声大噪的淘品牌一样,三只松鼠在红利期顺势大起。许多淘品牌败在了流量红利消失的拐点,三只松鼠也曾陷入增长困境。从增长变缓的局面里爬起来并实现逆增长,三只松鼠花了一年多。

「线上战争极其惨烈,抓不住动态的流量,就意味着份额的下滑。断崖式的下滑。」章燎原说。从坚果到零食,从卖东西到如今聚焦「造货」、深耕供应链,三只松鼠不断创新、犯错、转向。在章燎原看来,企业无论走到哪个阶段,最关键的两件事是速度与时间。

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我们和章燎原聊了聊,4 小时 23 分钟的长谈里,他痛快地谈论:

零售的变迁、淘品牌的兴亡、三只松鼠这 7 年的得失

他从苹果、7-11、无印良品、旺旺、洽洽、李宁、优衣库等品牌身上学习了什么

他也坦诚地分享:

他的个性、如何与这个世界相处,也包括他如何抵抗焦虑。

希望能对你有点启发,欢迎收藏转发。

淘品牌消亡史

峰小瑞:双 11 的头几年,排名前五基本都是淘品牌的天下。这几年,很多曾经很火的淘品牌,慢慢消失了,这是为什么?

章燎原:淘品牌起来,起初主要是因为电商红利。就像你家门口忽然建了个火车站,你做了点茶叶蛋去卖,一下子卖成了第一、第二,那些原来在别处专业做茶叶蛋的,发现你生意不错,也跑去你家门口的火车站卖,你很可能就死了。

这也就是为什么等 ZARA、优衣库都上天猫卖的时候,许多服装淘品牌就活不下去了:它们所在的品类,已经巨头林立了,竞争对手太多、太强大。化妆品行业也一样,大品牌的消费者心智更强,淘品牌如果不能给用户更强的感知,就会很艰难。

此外,对电商品牌而言,除了产品本身要好,还得找到流量大的品类。也就是说,如果你只是做一个很细分的品类或者场景,往往会被大流量的打死。因为,基础逻辑是大流量吃小流量、高频打低频、高客单价打低客单价。

举个例子,如果三只松鼠到今天还只做坚果,没有做零食,我们非常有可能已经被别人吃掉。因为坚果这个品类的流量池不够大。很多时候,消费者在网上不是奔着特定品牌来的,而是奔着他搜索的产品来。理论上,我们的产品品类最起码要达到一定的量级,才能养活坚果。

峰小瑞:作为淘品牌的典型代表,三只松鼠这些年没有没落,却做到连续七年「双 11」行业第一,三只松鼠到底做对了什么?

章燎原:确实,历史上,没有一个淘品牌,在它停止增长后的一年里能够恢复增长,也没有任何一个淘品牌在失去这个名头后,敢那么高调和牛逼地宣布自己双十一的成绩。我们是个例外。

过去 6 年多,内外部环境一直都在快速变化,我们基本上每一个阶段都是在拼速度和时间,围绕速度与时间的关系,以及流量和产品的关系在做事情。



峰小瑞:这些年,三只松鼠的策略有什么变化?

章燎原:我这个人做事是很专注的。从 2012 年到 2015 年 10 月,我们不进入任何一个分销和线下渠道,再大的分销商找我,我也不做。我只专注把线上的部分做好。到 2018 年,我们才正式、全面地进入线下。

2015 年以前,三只松鼠只做坚果,不做其他品类。2015 年 5 月份,我们踏入零食领域。刚做零食的时候,我们只推出 20 款,确认款款是爆款。2016 年,我们才开始逐步拓展品种。

2016 年到 2017 年,我们犯的其中一个错误是品类拓展太快,跟流量不匹配。或者说,在拓展更多品种的时候,每一款产品的打造都不够极致。这些都会稀释流量,同时给顾客的心智带来了不好的影响。这是 2017 年很大的问题,到现在我们都还在调整。

人的精力有限,必须一步一步走,走下一步之前,要盘一下手头的资源、资产、流量情况。刚创业那会儿,流量「莫名其妙」地来,坚果一个品类撑不住了,我们做 20 款零食,20 款零食撑不住,我们上 50 款。现在情况不一样了。流量红利已经结束,在一个存量市场里,我们必须把重心放回到产品上。

峰小瑞:从坚果到零食,三只松鼠是横着长的,是面向一类人更广泛的需求?

章燎原:主要是为了保持流量。服装淘品牌之所以后来不行了,除了刚提到的对手太强大,另一个原因是,在流量红利很多的时期,它们没有快速地在产品上发力,去占据流量的来源,并攻占消费者的心智。等聪明人优衣库、ZARA 一上天猫,它们的产品线能满足更多的人群,流量就会自然往那儿汇集。

线上的竞争是非常惨烈的,流量是动态的,不增长就意味着下滑,而且是断崖式地下滑,根本不给你一点喘息的时间。不像线下,你在这里开的店,别人抢不走,它往上爬得慢,往下跌也慢。线上经济就是流量经济,速度和时间非常重要,你的流量能构建多大的心智也很重要。



线下店和 IP「有病」的地方

峰小瑞:2016 年 9 月,松鼠开了第一家线下投食店,现在开到快 50 家,中间经历过扩张、迭代,也经历过老爹去把店给砸了。做线下这个事情和当年老爹预想的一样吗?和玩线上比,有哪些难点?

章燎原:总的来说,线下大有可为,我们现在做全渠道:线上造货,线下卖货

不过,线下的生意很重,不是我们做互联网的人凭一腔热血就能把它做好。以投食店为例,一开始我们过于乐观,甚至喊出的口号也很乐观,结果发现,装修方案的标准化都是极其难的事情。我把两个店砸了,是这个原因。

在管理方面,我们企图把我们很好的用户体验通过我们的价值观带到线下去。开两家店可以,开 20 家店就不行了。

第三,我们曾经过多地在意店铺的 IP 形象,忽略了它作为一家店的基础功能——销售产品。这是不对的。过度关注 IP 的时候,顾客进去第一印象会特别好,但是它不能持续,因为我们毕竟不是提供玩的场所,玩的场所在 shopping mall 里多了去了,为什么要一定要来你这里?

与此同时,过度在意 IP 形象,产品的展现就变得薄弱,然而,我们持续跟顾客产生黏性,还要靠产品。

这是我们总结的线下店三个「有病」的地方。



峰小瑞:接下来,会怎么调整呢?

章燎原:第四代的线下店会很不一样——IP 为辅,产品为主。每一家店的营业面积控制在 200 平米左右(以前动不动 300 多平米)。这样,我们算下来每家店大概会有 10% 的净利润,年销售额 800 万,坪效大概是 3 万多。

我们还在研究第五代店,它会更加强调产品的创新和体验,让用户没有负担、愉悦地试吃。现在很多店让你试吃,你的内心都是抗拒的,要么店员让你有压迫感,要么给你吃的东西暴露在空气里不知道多久了。

这一点,苹果店非常值得学习。苹果店诞生以前,很多店里卖手机,连个真机都不舍得摆,放一个手机模型让你摸一下,这叫什么体验?苹果店的诞生彻底改变了这一切,它把店装修得简洁大气漂亮,真机在那儿一放,你看到了,自然而然就想触摸,想进去体验,一点心理负担都没有。虽然现在很多手机线下体验店都是这样了,但苹果店的出现绝对是个颠覆性的、伟大的发明。

峰小瑞:您特别强调做 IP 那年,公司有人提出反对意见吗?

章燎原:没有,基本我说了算。我不太习惯别人指责我的错误,但是我自己会认错、改错。

2016 年 IP 很热,我觉得三只松鼠有 IP 的属性,别人没有,我就把它做突出。突出过头,它就演变成一种核心战略。我们有一段时间陷了进去,把 IP 当救命稻草,认为只有把 IP 做好,品牌就会好。这肯定是错的。

不过,不论是布局松鼠小镇,还是三只松鼠动画片,目前看都没有问题,IP 可以作为品牌的渲染,作为锦上添花。

我们现在很明确了,三只松鼠并非一个 IP 品牌,它就是一个产品品牌,只是借助了 IP。两者的定位是不一样的。

峰小瑞:所以三只松鼠不会成为迪斯尼,它可能更像雀巢?

章燎原:对,我们还是一个产品品牌,只是在传播方面走了一条差异化路线,即通过 IP 的方式实现品牌传播。

峰小瑞:说到品牌传播,你会介意外界说你只会搞营销吗?

章燎原:现在我不介意。营销专家=产品专家。其实我们对营销有曲解,认为它就是销售。营销不是销售,是洞察消费者需求,并通过创新手段,创造消费者喜欢的产品。乔布斯对苹果最大的贡献也是营销和产品。

两年前,我会介意。因为那时我还有别的追求,比如管理。我曾想把自己变成一个管理专家,然后花了很多时间做组织建设、价值观建设,在产品和用户体验上有所松懈。2017 年,问题都凸显出来了。可以说,创业这 7 年,我最大的错误,就是高估组织的作用。

现在我很确定,对三只松鼠而言,好的产品和体验高于一切。产品和体验好,就不愁增长。管理不是我的核心能力,营销是。现在我对自己的定位就是营销专家和产品专家,而不是什么管理专家。创业者把自己的核心优势发挥到极致就行,别老想着学别的长处。



“只有经历过两个时代的企业家,才能称得上企业家”

峰小瑞:就像你说的,电商红利好像已经过去了,未来零食行业的趋势是什么?

章燎原:我们正在做的产品创新,就是未来的趋势。任何一家企业在发展过程中,都要跨越时代去完成转型,才能持续发展。如果你第一次创业就成功了,肯定是遇到了红利,有红利猪都会飞。只有经历过两个时代的企业家才能称得上企业家。

中国最早的民营企业,比如傻子瓜子,没有跨进新时代。洽洽、来伊份、旺旺、达利园遇到了中国物资稀缺、零售渠道正好起步的时代,渠道养活了它们。其中,洽洽和来伊份做得不如旺旺和达利园大,因为坚果是个小品类。

切换到电商这个时代的时候,它们都没有抓住机会。电商时代肯定要出零食品牌,我们来了。

不过,电商现在已经居高了,再怎么做,持续增长没问题,但是最多只是在一个存量市场当中做增量。每年跑出 10%、5% 增长可以,再大就很难。

再往下是什么?我们可以理解为新零售,简单讲就是线上线下的融合,这其实是基于互联网之上、整个产业升级的机会。有的企业是从线下往线上走,比如达利园、旺旺,有的企业是从线上往线下融合,比如三只松鼠。我觉得线上往线下走,效率会更高。



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