北京大学陈春花:人生的基本命运就是自我成就

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导读:成功,不单是指一种结果,更应该是一个过程,一种进步。在达到预期的目标的过程中所做出的努力,陋习的改变,良好习惯的养成,困难的克服,甚至任何一小点的进步,只要是好的进步都是成功。但这一切的前提是:你是否愿意自我成就。

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人人都能成功

关键在于你是否愿意

事实上生活有一个简单的道理,就是如果你愿意的话,你将会取得惊人的成就。这句话之所以存在,就是因为我们发现所有成就的获得都来源于你自己的一种意愿。人的一生能具有什么样的价值,取得什么样的成就,完全取决于你是不是愿意,只要你愿意,就肯定可以取得惊人的成就,所以如果真想要整个人生变得非常有意义,首先就要问自己:「我是不是愿意。」

每一个希望实现自己人生价值的人,都不能不考虑「我应当成为什么人」的问题,而每一个希望最大限度实现自己人生价值的人,都必须设法充分发挥自己的天赋才能。正是出于此种考虑,你「能成就什么,就必须成就什么」,你要「把自己的条件禀赋一一发挥尽致」,成为当代美国人本主义心理学家马斯洛著名的自我实现理论的两条要义。我非常认同,在我读中学的时候,我深受一本传记的影响,这本传记就是《居里夫人》。

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居里夫人:成就取决于你自己的付出

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居里夫人(玛丽·居里,Marie Curie,1867—1934),法国籍波兰科学家,研究放射性现象,发现镭和钋两种放射性元素,一生两度获诺贝尔奖。居里夫人出生于波兰华沙,她是家中5个子女中最小的一个。她的父亲是一名收入十分有限的中学数理教师,妈妈也是中学教员。玛丽的童年是不幸的,她的妈妈得了严重的传染病,是大姐照顾她长大的。后来,妈妈和大姐在她不满10岁时就相继病逝了,她的生活中充满了艰辛。这样的生活环境不仅培养了她独立生活的能力,也使她从小就磨炼出非常坚强的性格。19岁那年,她开始做长期的家庭教师,同时还自修了各门功课,为将来的学业做准备。这样,直到24岁时,她终于来到巴黎大学理学院学习。她带着强烈的求知欲望,全神贯注地听每一堂课,艰苦的学习使她身体变得越来越差,但是她的学习成绩却一直名列前茅,这不仅使同学们羡慕,也使教授们惊异。入学两年后,她充满信心地参加了物理学学士学位考试,在30名应试者中,她考了第一名。

1902年年底,居里夫人提炼出1/10克极纯净的氯化镭,并准确地测定了它的原子量。镭虽然不是人类第一个发现的放射性元素,但却是放射性最强的元素。利用它的强大放射性,人们能进一步查明放射线的许多新性质,以使许多元素得到进一步的实际应用。医学研究发现,镭射线对于各种不同的细胞和组织,作用大不相同,那些繁殖快的细胞,一经镭的照射很快都被破坏了。这个发现使镭成为治疗癌症的有力手段。癌症肿瘤是由繁殖异常迅速的细胞组成的,镭射线对于它的破坏作用远比周围健康组织的破坏作用大得多。这种新的治疗方法很快在世界各国发展起来。在法国,镭疗术被称为居里疗法。镭的发现从根本上改变了物理学的基本原理,对于促进科学理论的发展和在实际中的应用,都有十分重要的意义。

由于居里夫妇的惊人发现,1903年12月,他们和贝克勒尔一起获得了诺贝尔物理学奖。虽然居里夫妇的科研功勋盖世,但是他们极端藐视名利,最厌烦那些无聊的应酬。他们把自己的一切都献给了科学事业,而不捞取任何个人私利。在镭提炼成功以后,有人劝他们向政府申请专利权,垄断镭的制造以此发大财。居里夫人对此说:「那是违背科学精神的,科学家的研究成果应该公开发表,别人要研制,不应受到任何限制。」「何况镭是对病人有好处的,我们不应当借此来谋利。」居里夫妇还把得到的诺贝尔奖金大量赠送别人。

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1911年,居里夫人又获得诺贝尔化学奖。一位女科学家,在不到10年的时间里,两次在两个不同的科学领域里获得世界科学的最高奖,这在世界科学史上是独一无二的事情!

在居里先生去世后,居里夫人把千辛万苦提炼出来的价值高达100万金法郎以上的镭,无偿地赠送给了研究癌症治疗的实验室。

1934年7月4日,居里夫人病逝了,她最后死于恶性贫血症。她一生创造、发展了放射科学,长期无畏地研究强烈放射性物质,直至最后把生命贡献给这门科学。在她一生中,她共获得包括诺贝尔奖等在内的10种著名奖项,得到国际高级学术机构颁发的奖章16枚;世界各国政府和科研机构授予她的各种头衔多达100多个,但是她一如既往地那样谦虚谨慎。伟大的科学家爱因斯坦评价她说:「在我认识的所有著名人物中,居里夫人是唯一不为盛名所颠倒的人。」

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整个中学时代,我深受这本书的影响,我所生长的地方是一个东北的小镇,当时我并没有很多想法,可是这本书激发了我渴望成功的意愿,甚至影响到我报考大学的专业选择,我曾经想成为像居里夫人一样的科学家,所以报读了工科。居里夫人让我明白,个人奋发向上的辛勤实干是取得杰出成就所必须付出的代价,也就是说,成就取决于你自己的付出而不是其他,所以只要你愿意付出,正是你的双手和大脑使你取得成就,而不是其他。我懂得了这个道理,也就懂得了如何实现自己的价值。

可能每个人的智商会有所不同,可能每个人会在不同的专业领域发展,但是取得成就的根本不是我们的智商,也不是我们的专业选择,成就所需要的前提条件是,我们愿意为成就付出极大的努力,通过我们的意志,通过我们吃苦耐劳,通过我们坚忍不拔的自助实干,转化为奋发向上的激情,并为之勇猛地战斗。

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人生的基本命运就是自我成就

其实人生的基本命运就是自我成就。我总记得古希腊神话中那暗示着人的某种基本命运的坦塔罗斯、普罗米修斯、西西弗斯和俄狄浦斯。

在远古的神话中,古希腊神话具有一种超越时空、永远扣人心弦的力量。因为它似乎是对人的生存之谜的某种揭示,其中最令人回味无穷又最震撼人的心灵的,就是坦塔罗斯、普罗米修斯、西西弗斯和俄狄浦斯的故事。

据说坦塔罗斯是吕底亚国王。骄傲的坦塔罗斯由于对众神不敬而受罚下地狱,在地狱里,他站在齐颈深的水中,却遭受着焦渴之苦,低头喝水,水即退去;他头上垂着果实累累的树枝,却不能消除饥饿的折磨,伸手取果,树就避开,他永远遭受着饥渴的煎熬。

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普罗米修斯在人类遭到宙斯遗弃时,违背宙斯的命令,为人类盗取火种,教导人类劳动,赋予人类各种智慧,帮助人类脱离了原始状态,走向文明和繁荣。普罗米修斯对宙斯的反叛遭到了残酷的报复,宙斯下令把他锁在高加索的悬崖上,用矛刺穿他的胸部,派一只大鹰每天早晨飞来啄食他的肝脏,一到晚上肝脏又重新长出来,但大鹰第二天早晨继续来啄食。普罗米修斯骄傲地向宙斯挑战,又骄傲地忍受着苦难,绝不以屈服求宙斯宽恕。

科林斯的国王西西弗斯,因得罪众神而遭到惩罚,既不是饥渴的煎熬,也不是遭受肝脏被鹰啄食的酷刑,而是惩罚他把一块巨石推上山顶,巨石每次一到山顶就坠下,坠而复推,推而复坠,永无止境。他经受的是由于繁重的、永无止境的徒劳工作而带来的心灵的痛苦,是必须以「意义」来支撑自己生活的人,经受失去「意义」的空虚和迷茫。

坦塔罗斯、普罗米修斯和西西弗斯的形象,两千年来一直震撼着人们的心灵,然而,对人们心灵震撼最大的,当推那谜一样的俄狄浦斯。俄狄浦斯刚一出生,就由于一道断言他日后注定杀父娶母的神谕而被抛弃;他竭力逃避这不幸的命运,却被命运一步步引向杀父娶母的结果;他道破了天下最难解的谜,却猜不中自己的谜而葬送在对自己的迷误中。他最后的结局是刺瞎自己的双眼,自我放逐。可是,这个最不幸的人,所到之处却带给人们和平与安宁。

这四个人都是和自己的命运作斗争的斗士,他们反抗的分别是自然力的威风、社会邪恶力量的暴虐、徒劳之举的「无意义」以及人生的荒诞和不可知力量的淫威。这种斗争就是人的基本命运。

然而,更深刻而永恒的命运还在于:人的生活需要寻求意义,但是由于种种的原因,人的一生注定要经受许多失败,要做许多西西弗斯式的工作,像西西弗斯一样接受这种挑战,背负命运的重负而不被压倒,接受「坦塔罗斯的磨难」和经历「普罗米修斯的苦难与抗暴斗争」,也就成为人生面临的基本任务。至于俄狄浦斯式的个人意志与残酷命运的冲突,更是人们永远要准备迎接的基本冲突。

这四个人的斗争,象征着人必须与自然界、与社会暴力、与失败以及与不可知力量搏击的命运。这种命运,对于人来说是内在自然必然性,理解它、超越它,是人生的职责。这种命运对于个人来说是「共同的」,然而人们对待它的态度却是「个人的」。每个人通过对待作为人的内在自然必然性的上述命运的态度,或是「成为自己」,或是「失去自己」,正如赫尔曼·黑塞所说:「可能成为善人,可能成为恶人;或为动物,或为神明。」


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